Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) in the North-East of Ukraine. - N.P. Knysh. - Berkut. 22 (2). 2013. - P. 122-132.
Black Redstart is found in the northern Polesian districts of the Sumy region from 1958, in Sumy – since 1970, in the southern countryside part of the region it appeared in 1970-1990-ies. Currently, this species occupies a significant place in the ornithocomplexes of settlements. The population density in urban areas is 1,3–2 pairs/km of the route, in villages – up to 40 pairs/km2. Spring arrival of birds begins 3.04 ± 1,9 days (n = 30; 12.03.2008 – 21.04.1987). Mean date of the last departure is 16.10 ± 2,4 days (n = 21; 28.09.1995 – 11.11.2010). Timing of migrations are significantly changed. It tends to earlier arrival and later departure. Coefficient of linear regression for the first arrival dates made –0,70 (n = 30, p < 0,001), for the last departure dates – 0,51 (n = 21, p < 0,05). Unmarried males sing from the arrival date until mid-July. Abortive singing is observes from the 3rd decade of August to late October. 17–40 days, on average 25,4 ± 3,9 days (n = 5) pass from the date of forthcoming of advanced birds to the first laid egg date. The massive construction of nests begins in the 2nd half of April. It was observed that pause between the end of nest building and the first egg laying is near 3–3,5 days. Egg-laying period continues from the 2nd decade of April to the 3rd decade of June, mass oviposition – in the 3rd decade of April (22,0 %), 1st decade of May (17,1%) and the 2nd half of June (22,0%). 46.3% of females participate in the second cycle of reproduction. Nestlings from the first nests fly in mid-May, the last – in the 2nd half of July. Nests (n = 48) are located on the outside of human buildings (44%) and within abandoned or semi-residential premises (56%), respectively. Indoor Black Redstart often occupies old Barn Swallow nests. Nests are located at a height of 1,5 to 4 m above the ground or floor space. Size of the 9 nests (mm): general diameter (D) and the diameter of the tray (d), measured in two perpendicular directions – 120–170 × 80–135 (on average 137 × 111) and 60–72 × 55–68 (64 × 60), height (H) – 72–110 (91), the tray depth (h) – 40–50 (45). Full clutches consist of 3–7, averaging 4,58 ± 0,12 eggs (n = 36), including the first clutch (n = 20) – 4,85 ± 0,17, second (n = 16) – 4,31 ± 0,15 eggs. Differences are significant (t = 2,32; p < 0,05). The size of the eggs: 18,0–21,1 × 13,9–15,5 mm, on average – 19,52 ± 0,10 × 14,57 ± 0,05 (n = 55), the shape index is 68,72–79,79, on average 74,72 ± 0,37, weight of the fresh eggs (n = 20) – 2,080–2,470 g, on average – 2,278 ± 0,026 g. Eggs of second clutches are somewhat smaller than the first one. Eggs lose near 12,8% of weight during the incubation. Constant brooding begins with the penultimate egg. Proper incubation phase lasts 13 (n = 4) and 15 days (1). Newborns broods (n = 30) consist of 3–5, averaging 4,40 ± 0,10 nestlings/successful nest, broods on the sortie eve (n = 28) – at 1–5, averaging 4,14 ± 0,17 nestlings. Five 4-day-old birds got 138 feed portions per day (female – 43% of brings, male – 57%, respectively). Feeding intensity curve has two peaks, morning and evening, with daily depression. Nestlings are in the nest during 15 days. Broods of the young birds kept for a long time at the nesting sites. Hatching success on the 32 nesting attempts is 91,7% in newborn litters (n = 30) on average 4,12 ± 0,05 nestlings. General breeding success is 80,6%, productivity – 3,62 ± 0,08 fledglings per pair. Mortality of the breed was 19,4%, including the laying phases – 0,7 %, brooding – 7,6%, fledging – 11,1%. Unfertilized eggs accounted for 0,7%, fetal mortality rate – 0,7%, the disappearance of the eggs and nestlings – 4,2%. The greatest damage for the Black Redstart breed (10,4%) is determined by the influence of disturbance. Young birds are eliminated by semi-feral domestic cats during the post-breeding period. Any serious threat to the existence of a local population of the Black Redstart is not observed. [Russian].
Key words: distribution, ecology, breeding, nest, clutch, egg, breeding success, migration.
Address: Hetmansky National Park; Trostyanets, 42600, Sumy region, Ukraine; e-mail: knysh.sumy@email.ua.