About the range border of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in Kherson and Zaporizhzhya regions (SE Ukraine). - V.N. Grishchenko, E.D. Yablonovska-Grishchenko. - Berkut. 22 (1). 2013. - P. 29-43.
We studied current distribution of the White Stork and analysed retrospective data. Field works in these two regions were conducted in 2010–2013. According to our data, the utmost points of breeding in 2013 were next settlements: Martynivka (45.53 N, 34.20 E) in the N Crimea; Syvaske (46.23 N, 34.33 E), Petrivka (46.29 N, 34.41 E) in Kherson region; Mordvynivka (46.45 N, 35.22 E), Hannivka (46.50 N, 36.01 E), Udarnyk (47.03 N, 35.52 E), Skelyuvate (47.17 N, 35.56 E), Pologi (47.29 N, 36.10 E), Chubarivka (47.33 N, 36.30 E), Novoukrainka (47.28 N, 36.40 E) in Zaporizhzhya region; Krasna Polyana (47.33 N, 37.04 E) in Donetsk region. The most generalized line of distribution limits of the White Stork in Ukraine can be drawn via large cities: Melitopol – Donetsk – Lugansk. During XXth c., breeding range of the White Stork in SE Ukraine underwent considerable changes. Till 1930s, its border receded to the west and to the north. Two unfavourable factors were the main reasons of this decline. 1. Climate changes. The warming period started in late XIX c., intensified in 1910s and reached the maximum in 1930s. The rise of air temperature was accompanied by decrease of amount of precipitations in arid areas. The most frequency and duration of extreme droughts in C and S Ukraine were registered in 1921–1930. Naturally, it does not favour breeding of the waterbird in Steppe zone. 2. Civil war (1918–1920) and changes in the psychology of people. During the war, storks were massacred. They were convenient targets for armed men. People had not already the reverence and superstitious fear for the bird. After the war many nests have been destroyed during the reconstruction of villages. It caused number decreasing in main breeding grounds and promoted the retreat of range border. Civil war in collapsed Russian empire was not unique in this aspect. During the war in Lebanon (1975–1990), thousands of storks were killed yearly by military men (see Schulz, 1988). In second half of XXth c., the stork’s breeding range in SE Ukraine was gradually renewed. The considerable expansion took place in last years. Analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of breeding allowed to define four main structural elements of peripheral part of the range. 1. Separate breeding grounds. These are steady breeding groups that were formed in favourable and stable conditions. Such remote breeding grounds were well studied by us in the Crimea (see Grishchenko, Yablonovska-Grishchenko, 2011). 2. Zones of pulsation. In these areas, storks nest sporadic and very unstable. Nests permanently appeared in different points and later vanished. Zones of pulsation arose in areas with favourable but unstable conditions. Reasons of their forming are discussed. 3. Zones of sporadic breeding. These are large areas with very sporadic distribution of the species. They differ from zones of pulsation by lower population density and lesser dynamics of breeding. These zones were formed in areas with stable and bad conditions. 4. Territories of constant breeding. Here storks bred long ago and more or less stable. Support of people can help storks to occupy the new areas. [Russian].
Key words: distribution, breeding range, number dynamics, structure of the range, conservation.
Address: V.N. Grishchenko, Kaniv Nature Reserve; Kaniv, 19000, Ukraine; e-mail: vgrishchenko@mail.ru.