Phenology of the autumn migration of the Common Crane in Ukraine. - V.N. Grishchenko. - Berkut. 16 (2). 2007. - P. 250-263.
Timing of the autumn migration is analysed on the base of own observations, phenological questionnaire, literature data and unpublished information. Obtained data cover the period in 40 years – 1968–2007. Main statistic parameters of timing and ratio of flight directions of crane flocks for 25 regions of Ukraine were calculated (Tables 1–2), phenological maps of migration were drawn. Timing of migration of cranes is very extended. First migrating flocks are observed in all the regions in August but in some points they can appear only in October. Average dates of start of passage fall on the second and the third ten-days of September. The last flocks are registered since September till November. Average dates fall as a rule on October. Few cranes can winter in southern regions and in the south of West Ukraine. Analysis of yearly average dates for the period in 40 years shown significant trends in phenology. Migrations starts earlier (R2 = 0,60, a = –0,40, p < 0,001) and ends later (R2 = 0,11, a = 0,12, p < 0,05), duration of the passage increases (R2 = 0,53, a = 0,50, p < 0,001) (Fig. 3–4). Cranes pass over the territory of Ukraine in two large migration streams (Fig. 1–2). They correspond to branches of Russian-Pontic flyway (according to Flint and Pancheshnikova, 1982, 1985). In total the southern direction of migration prevails in Ukraine. Ratio of flight directions very differs in separate regions (Table 3, Fig. 5). It depends on local features. The most interesting in this regard is the south-east of Ukraine. A part of cranes skirts the Sea of Azov and in East Ukraine prevailing flight directions form a large “funnel”. Its mouth is directed to Sivash and the Crimea. No wonder that very large premigratory gatherings arise in the area of Sivash and Askania-Nova. Graphs of flight directions show the tendency to bypass of ecological barriers (sea and mountains). Prevalence of the main flight direction is most expressed during the crossing of an ecological barrier. Location of flyways of the Common Crane in Ukraine can be explained by the optimisation of energetic costs for migration. [Russian].
Key words: Common Crane, Grus grus, Ukraine, timing, flyway, flight direction, changes in phenology.
Address: V.N. Grishchenko, Kaniv Nature Reserve, 19000 Kaniv, Ukraine; e-mail: