Dialects of the Chaffinch song in forest and forest-steppe zones of Ukraine and in the Ukrainian Carpathians. - E.D. Yablonovska-Grishchenko, V.N. Grishchenko. - Berkut. 16 (1). 2007. - P. 141-155.
Geographic va-riation of Chaffinch song was studied during breeding seasons of 2002–2007. In total, 16790 songs of 2209 males in 45 points (Fig. 1) were recorded using digital camcorder Sony TRV 110 E and Sony TRV 550 E with external microphone. Song types were described on the base of original method (Yablonovska-Grishchenko, 2006). All the song types found were grouped in 5 categories according to their distribution: universal (7, Fig. 4), dialect (41), regional (20), local (59) and unique (52). Universal and dialect types was joined in the group of dialect-forming types. Songs recorded on an area make a territorial complexes. Their similarity was determined by Chekanovsky-Sørensen index calculated for the all pairs of points. Tree clustering was created by Ward’s method (using STATISTICA 5.1). There are many interpretations of term “dialect” in literature. We have used the hierarchical scale by analogy with linguistics. Dialect is a stable complex of song types characteristic for the large territory. Sub-dialect is a part of the dialect. It is possible to separate also smaller regional song complexes. The minimal unit in the geographic variation of bird song is the parcel. This is the local vocal group of birds described by G.N. Simkin on an example of the Chaffinch. We have separated dialects and sub-dialects using cartographic method and cluster analysis (Fig. 3). We have discovered three dialects of the Chaffinch in the study area: Carpathian, Right-bank and Left-bank. Two last dialects form the Dnieper contact area with the mixed song complex. They consist of two sub-dialects – northern (forest) and southern (forest-steppe). There are contact areas also between sub-dialects. Borders of dialects and sub-dialects coincide with zoogeographic zoning of Ukraine (Fig. 1). Right-bank dialect has the largest number of song types. Songs are long and have the complicated structure. Songs of the Left-bank dialect are simpler. Carpathian dialect includes the least number of song types. Song structure is simple. There are many harmonic elements in song. It does not form the contact area. This is the most original and archaic dialect. Stability and origin of dialects are dis-cussed. The territorial song complexes can exist stably during the long time owing to the cultural transmission. The new complexes form mainly during the expansion of the species in new territories. In our opinion, origin of present song dialects of the Chaffinch in Ukraine is connected with changes in plant cover during the last (Würm) glaciation and in Holocene. The Carpathian dialect is probably relict. This song complex could remain in the Carpathians since the pre-glaciation time in Pleistocene. According to reconstruction of vegetation, even in maximum of the Würm glaciation forests remained in area of the Carpathians. The surrounding plains were covered at this time by periglacial steppes. [Russian].
Key words: Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs, Ukraine, dialect, song type, song complex, cultural transmission.
Address: E.D. Yablonovska-Grishchenko, Kaniv Nature Reserve, 19000 Kaniv, Ukraine;
e-mail: aetos@narod.ru.