State of populations of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker in Europe: new and unexpected changes. - V.S. Friedmann. - Berkut. 14 (1). 2005. - P. 76-98.
Some cases of breeding of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker were observed in Moscow region. We gave evidence of more frequent breeding attempts in the south of Moscow region and around the Moscow and evidence of number increasing in Kaluga and Tula regions. Literature data analysis permits us to discover number growth and area expansion for European race of D. m. medius. These processes began from end 1980s – beginning 1990s. They enveloped a row of local populations of D. medius in Baltic countries, Saratov region, Austria and France. These processes began near south boundaries of Moscow region from the middle of 1990s. We gave evidence of the connection between the destruction of D. medius relations with old-aged broad-leaved forests and number growth of it’s local populations. After such destruction this species developed wide spectrum of anthropogenic transformed habitats (recreation forests, old parks cities). This strategy permit them to increase the number in spite of the anthropogenic fragmentation of oak-groves. We discussed the set of key adaptations of D. medius on the level of population biology and individual behavior, that ensured such fast changes. [Russian].
Key words: Middle Spotted Woodpecker, Dendrocopos medius, Europe, population, number.
Address: W.S. Friedmann, Laboratory of ecology and nature conservation, biological faculty, Moscow university, Leninskiye gory, 1/12, 119992 Moscow, Russia; e-mail: