Pines and birds – remarkable symbiosis. - M. Abs. - Berkut. 13 (2). 2004. - P. 193-198.
The long lasting evolutionary process of adaptations in the Eurasian Nutcracker and the American Clarks Nutcracker to feeding of pine seeds is described. The adaptation between the nutcrackers and the pine tree is so well developed and comprises so many aspects of the whole biology of the species that the term symbiosis is justified. Further the relation between other birds like the Parrot Crossbill, the Citril Finch and other species and pine seeds as food are discussed. [German].
Key words: ecology, symbiosis, pine, nutcracker.
Address: M. Abs, Elßholz Str. 8, D-10781 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: michael.abs@snafu.de.