Lapwing in conditions of Kaliningrad city: dynamics of spring arriving and breeding biology. - E.L. Lykov. - Berkut. 13 (1). 2004. - P. 80-92.
Lapwing is one of 16 waders' species nesting in Kaliningrad region. This bird nests on low-grass water meadows, pasture meadows and some parts of back bogs in Kaliningrad city. First birds arrive in the end of February and the beginning of the March (6th of March in average). Maximum differences in dates of arriving in different years are 10 days. In spite of common tendency of quantity increase during the period of lapwing arriving to nesting areas considerable fluctuations was observed. Arriving of local resident lapwings comes to an end in end of March – beginning of April. Mass nests construction occurs in the end of March. Majority of nests (41,9 %) located on the ground among cereals grasses. Lapwings begin eggs laying after 16–28 days from the date of arriving. First eggs in different nests appear during seven weeks of the nesting season (3rd decade of March – 2nd decade of May). General period of eggs lying is 1st decade of April (55,6 %). Number of eggs in full clutch fluctuate between 3 and 4 (3,89 ± 0,03 in average; CV = 8,02 %). Eggs size – 42,7–50,9 x 31,1–35,8 mm (45,87 x 33,32 mm in average), roundness index – 63,06–80,37 % (72,72 % in average), eggs volume – 22,25–29,99 ml (26,00 ml in average). Breeding success on the model area during 4 years of observations is 60,5 % in average. Anomaly low breeding success was observed in 2003 (3,7 %). [Russian].
Key words: Lapwing, Vanellus vanellus, Kaliningrad, ecology, breeding, migration.
Address: E.L. Lykov, Gaydar str., 99/69, 236029, Kaliningrad, Russia.