Distribution and ecology of Mute Swans in Zamość region (Southeast Poland) in 1991–1997. - I. Kitowski. - Berkut. 13 (1). 2004. - P. 67-72.
The settling down process in Mute Swans from Zamość region (SE Poland) in 1991–1997 was researched. 44 breeding localities were found. Over the concerned period of studies 23 to 36 breeding pairs of Mute Swans on 19–27 localities were recorded in the study area. The highest number of pairs nested on large fish ponds. Breeding pairs had on average 5.32 ± 1.79 (n = 170) cygnets after hatching. In the respected period swans started nesting on 23 new breeding sites, which amounted to 52.3 %. On three localities cygnets of ‘Polish forms’ Cygnus olor immutabilis were recognised. [English].
Key words: Mute Swan, Cygnus olor, Poland, distribution, breeding, ‘Polish swan’.
Adress: I. Kitowski, Dep. of Nature Conservation, Institute of Biology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, PL-20-033 Lublin, Poland; e-mail: