Ways and regularities of the social evolution in pied woodpeckers (Genera Dendrocopos et Picoides; Picidae; Aves). - W.S. Friedmann. - Berkut. 6 (1-2). 1997. - P. 52-66; 7 (1-2). 1998. - P. 82-93.
The unique detail of pied woodpeckers' social organization, which help to understanding an adaptive nature all other parts their social system, is described. In social life of Picus- and Dryocopus-species during the year cycle all the forms of territoriality arise only after the beginning of courtship activity. They are induced from whole courtship behaviour, but social life by pied woodpeckers is organized the wrong way round. Their courtship behaviour arises only after strengthening the autumn territorial structure. It is successfully only, if the territory defense and supporting it's internal functional participation is successfully. For normal courtship only successfully defense of non-nesting territory is necessary and a defense of nesting pair territory have not causal connections with mating success. Because these all the pied woodpeckers mate in autumn; in spring the pair, appeared in autumn, only re-established. During the progressive social evolution in pied woodpeckers group we see the progressive emancipation the courtship behaviour from their inductor - a territorial behaviour - and the establishing an own mechanisms for work and stability the courtship behaviour in woodpeckers social system. We can interpret these data in the phylogenetic scenario consisted in 4 stages progressive evolution of sociality, which are described in the article. [Russian].
Key Words: pied woodpeckers, evolution, phylogeny, social behaviour, territoriality, courtship.