Some consequences of using the pesticides for steppe birds of East Europe. - V.P. Belik. - Berkut. 6 (1-2). 1997.P. 70-82.
Mass using the pesticides in steppes of East Europe has begun in 1920th for the struggle with locusts. In 1930th was unrolled the in-tensive destruction of sousliks - first by means of poisonous gases, but with 1950th - with using poison corn baits with phosphid of zinc. Finally, in 1960th in sowing grain regions mass spreading has get the insecticide DDT. Presently use of all these preparations is prohibited, but some from them (phosphid of zinc, DDT and its analogues) are sometimes used in counter-epidemic purpo-ses and for the emergency suppression of outbreaks of vermins. Consequences of using the insecticides on birds in 1920th have staid absolutely not explored. But it is needed to expect their very strong influence on the many inhabitants of rushes, caused sharp number decreasing of Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes and other birds. Using of gaseous rodenticides in 1930th had mainly indirect influence on birds, that are in cenotic connection with sousliks: the Steppe Eagle, the Long-legged Buzzard, the Isabelline Wheatear, etc. But phosphid of zinc has caused deep depression of numbers in many steppe birds, first of all - among big granivorous species (the Great and Little Bustards, the Demoiselle Crane, etc). Some raptors and specialized insectivorous species have obviously suffered from phospphid of zinc too. Cumulative influence of DDT on birds in east-european steppes was left nearly not studied. Number decreasing of falcons (the Saker Falcon, the Red-footed Falcon, the Kestrel) was ascertained practically already only after the prohibition of using the DDT. Presently, after weakening the pesticide pollution of environment, numbers of many species begun to increase. Populations of majority of the water birds have restored. Numbers of the Demoiselle Crane, Little Bustard, small falcons are increasing. But a part of species (Great Bustard, Saker Falcon, Little Kestrel, Pallid Harrier) get into very complex situation and require a taking the cardinal steps for their rescue. Reconstruction of bird populations, suffered from the indirect influence of pesticides (Steppe Eagle, Long-legged Buzzard, etc.), is in general hardly possible in the near future. The more so, as non regulated illegal using the forbidden pesticides lasts places hitherto. Considering low end effici-ency of pesticides and their danger for health of man and wildlife, it is reasonable to put the question on the full prohibition of using the steadfast preparations of general action. [Russian].
Key words: bird conservation, pesticide, steppe zone, breeding range, number dynamics.