Pictures of birds on noble arms of Russia and Poland. - E.D. Yablonovska-Grishchenko, S.A. Loparev, V.Yu. Bozhenko. - Berkut. 5 (2). 1996. P. 191-200.
Peculiarities of Russian and Polish arms were studied. 428 Russian and 95 Polish arms have pictures of birds or their parts (wings, paws, etc.). Russian arms have more compound structure. The majority of them were created in XVII-XVIII cent. during the "europeization" of Russia. Polish arms are the single structure. Pictures are very stilized. Ways of coming of bird pictures on arms are analysed. There are three main ways: bird pictures from the coat of arms of suzerain in the coat of arms of vassal, from the family name, use of traditional symbols. The sense of some bird symbols are described. [Russian].
Key words: history, heraldry, arm, Russian empire, Poland.