Methodological problems related to describing of communicative signals in birds: an approach of decision. - W.S. Friedmann. - Berkut. 5 (2). 1996. P. 175-185.
There are two possible ways for describing of birds demonstrations: an apportionment the single signals during the division of time series consisted by demonstrations (TSD) "up-down" on the elements with declined hierarchical level or apportionment the least behavioural elements (elementary motor pattern, EMP) and describing all the signals as consisted from these elements. Their using is discussed. The method, fulfilled the second way of analysis and compiling the species ethogram, is supported and proposed. This method consists from 2 stages. At first all the demonstrations were dismembered from TSD on the EMP. All the more compounded signals are apportioned with help an analysis of correlations between the joint registration all EMP pairs. For each part by EMP the association Pearson's test calculated after that all EMP are tied with correlations together. During breaking the weak connection between the EMP, we receive the single complexes from some EMP - a postures. After several iterations we receive the ethogram, which is steady to the new data. It shows, that the good apportioned demonstrations are discrete and stereotypic, which are the important cause for they releasers effectiveness. The analysis, fulfilled on the second stage, consists from the verification some hypotheses about signal effectiveness in social interactions these demonstrations, which are apportioned as probable communicative signals. We found and described some independent factors influenced on the probability of the signal's appearance in social interactions between members with help of the factor analysis. Then we established, that the each signal's use by woodpeckers in social communication connected only with the signals coordinate on the scale by only one factor. Each factor of some number apportioned factors we interpreted as one social motivation, which is an necessity to deciding some question of social communication. Then we investigated, how effective each signal in the motivation allow the decision the communicative questions by woodpecker. For each signal two indexes of it's effectiveness are calculated: 1) the probability by which this signal determined the result of one social combat (for example, the escape of territorial intruder); 2) the probability by which this signals determined the result of time series by social interactions (for example, the including a part of neighbour territory). The regression curves between these probabilities and the signals point on the motivation scale are parallel. [Russian].
Key words: behaviour, method, description, ritualized demonstation, signal effectiveness, motivation.