To the breeding biology of the Dipper in the Carpathians. - B.I. Godovanets. - Berkut. 5 (1). 1996. P. 53-55.
Data were collected in different places of the Ukrainian Carpathians in 1990-1995. Dippers were observed at altitudes of 300-1400 m. The population density fluctuates from 0,33 to 4,0 ind./km. The most frequently density is 1,5-3,0 ind./km. It is maximal in middle parts of rivers. First birds arrived in breeding places in middle of February. The mass migration takes place in end of February - beginning of March. Habitats of the Dipper in the Carpathians are fast-moving mountain rivers with rapids and steep banks. 12 nests were found (Table 2). Their parameters are in the Table 1. 8 nests were situated under bridges, 3 - on banks, 1 - on a stone among the water. 3 artificial nest boxes were occupied. The nest construction is described. The clutch had 3-5 eggs. The average dimensions are 26,26+-0,52 x 19,78+-0,09 mm. The average volume is 0,76+0,02 ml. The breeding success is about 30 %. 2 clutches are in a season: April-May and June. [Ukrainian].
Key words: Dipper, the Carpathians, number, breeding, nest, egg.