Distribution and numbers of the Sand Martin in some steppe and forest-steppe zone territories of Ukraine. - Chernichko R.N., Chernichko I.I., Gavris G.G., Garmash B.A., Klestov N.L., Mitiay I.S., Osipova M.A., Popenko V.M., Reva P.P., Strigunov V.I., Khomenko S.V. - Berkut. 5 (1). 1996. P. 44-52.
In Ukraine the Sand Martin is one of the most numerous bird species. The colony size varies from 7 to 4310 holes, with average one of 282 holes (Table 2). According to the number of holes in each colony we divided all of them into four groups: small - up to 100, middle - from 101 to 300 holes, large - from 301 to 1000 holes and very large - more than 1000 holes. The character of their size distribution is shown in Figure 3. Small and middle size colonies are the most frequent, but the majority of Sand Martins is concentrated in middle and large ones. Rivers are of great importance for breeding population, since 79 % of colonies and 71,5 % of holes are found in the bank precipices (Table 3). Depending on the soil type in the localities investigated, the colonies can be divided as follow: 1,3 % - in the precipices of crumbled granite, 4,0 % - in the black earth, 16,0 % - in the clay and sandy-loam soils, 12,0 % - in the sandy-coquina substrat, 34,7 % - in the loam and 32,0 % - in the sand. The changes in the breeding numbers within controlled territories don't reflect the population dynemics, but show the degree of nesting suitability of these areas (Figures 4, 5, 6; Tables 5, 6, 7). The settlements of the Sand Martin in the watersheds are slightly significant for the Ukranian population of the species. [Russian].
Key words: Ukraine, Sand Martin, distribution, number, colony.