Whether selection by the ritualization exists: a new theoretical approach to the evolution of signals of birds. I. Directed field verifying the ritualization's theory answers (for example Piciform birds). - Friedmann V.S. - Berkut. 4 (1). 1995. P. 51-61 .
The theory of ritualization (which is the unique theory of the evolution of birds signalling last time) consists some law-governed corollaries from his logical structure. This corollaries can be verified in field experiment. This corollaries are: 1) Sign al's form evolved in causal connection with motivation or its conflict, underlying this signals. 2) The signal's form is adaptive and evolved under the control of natural selection in its stabilized form, modified this form in causal connection with deve lopment of the key adaptation of this species. 3) The ritualized demonstrations are releaser signals. Its releaserness is causal connected with demonstrativeness, stereotypeness and garish of signals. This characters of all signals are established in the evolution as a result of ritualization natural selection. 4) The signal's form evolved under modifying effect of natural selection. 5). The pre-demonstration's form a priori consists the information about future social function of this releaser signals, which is an evolutional product of this pre-demonstration. 6) The phylogenesis of ritualized demonstration in its causes and effects is indiscernible from usually evolution of morphology. An experimental approach to the field verifying this corollaries are fulfilled. There are this results this verifying: 1) The signal's form is not corollary the motivation or its conflict, underlying the signals and elicited by stohastically rule. 2) The signal's form is not corollary from the key adaptation the speci es. 3) The ritualized demonstrations are releasers or emotive signals. 5) The pre-demonstration's form did not consist the information about the future motivation, which underlayed the future releasers. 6) The phylogenesis of releaser and emotive signals are a neutral stochastic evolution by M. Kimura. 7) The development of social function of releaser signal, which have adaptiveness, is real only on the way of progressive specialization the signals repertoire from one motivation. We can show this in inc luding the releasers number of the homological motivations and in including the number of departments on the motivation scale. [Russian].
Key words: woodpecker, behaviour, ritualization, signal, demonstration, evolution.