Landscape elements of the Forest-steppe Zone in the Carpathians and birds. - Lugovoy A.E. - Berkut. 3 (2). 1994. P. 149-150.
Ornithofauna of the forest-steppe is not a mixture of forest and steppe species, it has its own autochthons. They are different for the northern, middle and southern forest-steppe. Mainly northern (subalpine meadows) and middle (passes cultivated by the agriculture) groups penetrate to breeding in the Carpathians. Southern forest-steppe birds appear in mountains during the migration. They have ribbon migration routes. This is stipulated by the same ribbon configuration of the forest-steppe landscapes in mountains (river valleys). [Russian].
Key words: the Carpathians, forest-steppe, fauna, autochthon, migration.